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Calcium Deposits in Breasts

Calcification in the bosom is a condition which when recognized turns into a reason for stress for some ladies. Despite the fact that the truth of the matter is that it is not generally a genuine matter. Perused this article to take in more on this.

Mineral calcium tends to get deposited in the breast tissues and is known as breast calcifications. It is quite a common occurrence in women particularly after menopause. It has two different forms – macrocalcification and microcalcification. In macrocalcification, the calcium deposits appear as single dots which are quite large in size. In microcalcification, it looks like minute white specks of various sizes and shapes. It is only in rare cases these deposits get clustered up and turn cancerous at a later stage.

Causes

  • Basically, calcium deposits occur when crystals of calcium phosphate and collagen, a type of insoluble proteins present in tissues clump up together. It can be found not just in breasts but also in other parts of the body like hips, shoulders, and hands.
  • Calcium deposits in breast are a part of the degeneration process that may be triggered by aging, injury or inflammation in the breasts.
  • If there are foreign bodies like breast implants or stitches present in the breasts, deposition of calcium occur on them.
  • Fibroadenomas are harmless noncancerous growths in the mammary glands. It is believed that they are formed due to decrease in the levels of hormones in the menopausal phase.
  • Calcium deposits may occur on these benign growths.
  • Breast cysts are round or oval-shaped fluid filled sacs which are benign in nature. These cysts develop when a woman is in her 30s or 40s and disappear after menopause. If the cysts continue to exist even after that, calcium deposits may form on them.
  • Mammary duct ectasia is a problem associated with milk duct where the nipple gets blocked with milk and leads to breast calcifications. In some cases, it has been found that the duct had got blocked with milk several years ago.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Usually, the deposits occupy a very small area. So, the tiny spots cannot be felt by you or even your doctor during physical examination of the breast. They are detected on breast x-rays or mammograms as small white spots. The shape, size and pattern of these spots are carefully studied by the radiologist for diagnosing the problem. It is further confirmed with the help of biopsy which involves removal of a part of the affected tissue to analyze whether the condition is malignant or not. One form of biopsy is needle core biopsy where a needle is used to collect the samples. The other one is known as surgical biopsy where a wire is inserted into the area to remove breast tissue. Both the tests are done under local anesthesia.

  • Calcifications on fibroadenomas do not require any treatment and the spots disappear on their own.
  • If the breast cyst becomes painful due to calcification, draining out the fluid from it often provides relief to the patient.
  • For mammary duct ectasia, surgical intervention is often required.
  • Hardly, about 15-20 percent of the cases become malignant. Therefore, those of you who have this problem, should not get panicked unnecessarily. Rather, follow the instructions provided by your doctor. In malignant cases, close monitoring of the condition is advisable. In the first one year of detection, follow-up diagnostic mammogram is required after every six months. If no changes are found, then it would be monitored once a year.

There is a misconception among some people that this condition is caused due to the intake of high amount of calcium. However, it is far from the truth and there is no connection between them. It is often being said that post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy may lead to this problem. However, so far, there is no such evidence to support this concept.

Tidbit of Thickened Endometrium

While it is typical for the endometrium to thicken and shed amid menstrual cycle, anomalous thickening of the uterine covering is a therapeutic condition called endometrial hyperplasia. The accompanying article gives data on the causes, manifestations, and treatment of thickened endometrium.

The term ‘endometrial hyperplasia’ refers to a condition that is characterized by thickening of the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. This abnormal thickening of the uterine lining occurs due to an increased production of the estrogen in the body along with a deficiency of progesterone.

Classification of Endometrial Hyperplasia

Though a majority of cases of endometrial hyperplasia are benign in nature, the risk of endometrial carcinoma can increase if the gland-forming cells of the hyperplastic endometrium undergo certain changes over a period of time. There are two types of endometrial hyperplasia:

  • Hyperplasia without atypical changes
  • Hyperplasia with atypical changes

In case of atypical changes, the cells undergo changes and become abnormal. This puts the affected individual at a risk of developing womb cancer. These two types are further divided into simple and complex hyperplasia with or without atypical changes.

Causes

Estrogen is responsible for building the uterine lining. The maintenance and control of this growth is carried out in presence of progesterone. An overgrowth of uterine lining occurs when there is too much of estrogen and too little of progesterone. Thus, causing thickening of the endometrium. There are various causes of increase in estrogen and decrease in progesterone in the body. These include:
Diabetes

  • Estrogen hormone therapy without administration of progesterone
  • Missed menstruation cycle
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Obesity

Symptoms

The symptoms include changes during menstrual cycle. Other symptoms are as follows:

  • Vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding between menstrual cycle
  • Heavy and prolonged menstrual periods
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Pelvic pain
  • Excessively dry vagina
  • Increase in growth of body hair
  • Hot flushes
  • Mood swings
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Vaginal tenderness

Who are at Risk of Developing Endometrial Hyperplasia?

Women who are at risk of developing thickened endometrium are:

  • Women who have undergone menopause
  • Women who don’t ovulate or have irregular ovulation, that is, late periods
  • Obese or overweight women
  • Diabetics
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Treatment

Endometrial hyperplasia or thickened endometrium can be treated with medication in many cases. Birth control pills or hormone progesterone is usually given for treatment. Most often hysterectomy is advised to get rid of the affected endometrium. Many times hyperplasia may lead to cancer and therefore the doctor may observe you for some time, if you do not undergo hysterectomy. If a woman is exhibiting symptoms associated with a thickened endometrium, a biopsy may be carried out to rule out cancer.

Endometrial Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

Women who are diagnosed with endometriosis worry about getting pregnant. Women who are trying to conceive need to speak to their doctor regarding the treatment options for thickened endometrium. These include dilation and curettage, use of birth control pills that help in shedding the uterine wall, use of Provera and hysteroscopy. It may take time to conceive, thus, one should not stop trying.

There is significant risk involved with endometrial hyperplasia developing into cancer. Speak to your doctor regarding the condition and make sure you follow the suggested treatment to avoid complications.

Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia

Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia (ADH) alludes to the advancement of a bosom injury because of expansion of anomalous cells inside the drain pipes of the bosoms. ADH is thought to be a hazard component or forerunner to second rate ductal carcinoma in situ, which is the reason provoke treatment and follow-up turn out to be to a great degree key for the individuals who have been determined to have ADH. The accompanying review gives data on this condition.

The term ‘hyperplasia’ refers to the overgrowth of cells in a particular part of the body. Hyperplasia of the breast, which is also known as proliferative breast disease, refers to an overgrowth of the cells in the glandular part of the breast. Glandular tissue, which is one of the two main types of tissues that is found in the breast, comprises the lobules and ducts. The supportive tissue, which consists of the fatty tissue and the connective tissue, affects the shape and size of breasts. Lobules are the glands that make breast milk, whereas the ducts carry milk from the lobules to the nipple. Hyperplasia of the glandular part of the breast is categorized into ductal hyperplasia and lobular hyperplasia. The overgrowth of abnormal cells in a duct is medically referred to as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). In case of atypical ductal hyperplasia, the cells look abnormal under a microscope.

ADH is a precancerous condition. Those who are affected by this condition are certainly at a greater risk of developing breast cancer. The risk is higher, especially in case of women affected by lobular hyperplasia.

Diagnosis

ADH is asymptomatic, and doesn’t cause specific symptoms. It may be incidentally detected during a clinical exam. Diagnostic procedures such as mammography are conducted when women complain of breast pain, or other visible breast changes such as formation of lumps, or any abnormal changes in the texture of the breast. If doctors suspect any abnormality after conducting a clinical breast exam, they may recommend breast imaging studies or a mammogram. Microcalcifications on the mammogram may be an indicator, but ADH can be detected only through a biopsy.

The abnormal cells can be detected when a tissue sample is examined under a microscope. Different types of biopsy procedures may be employed to extract samples of tissue. These include:

➞ Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (insertion of a small needle to remove a sample of cells from the breast)
➞ Core needle biopsy (insertion of a large needle to extract bigger samples of tissue)
➞ Incisional biopsy (removal of a small piece of tissue)
➞ Excisional biopsy (removal of the entire lump of tissue)

Incisional or excisional biopsy is conducted if the fine-needle biopsy or core biopsy don’t give conclusive results. More often than not, an excisional biopsy is conducted after a core needle biopsy.

In case of ADH, the breast lesion may have some of the characteristic features of DCIS (Ductal Carcinoma In Situ refers to a non-invasive cancer that is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells within the milk ducts), but it may not meet the complete criteria.

Treatment and Preventive Measures

Since ADH increases the risk of breast cancer, medical assistance must be sought by the affected individuals. The treatment options may include surgery, as well as drug therapy. Here are some of the treatment options and precautionary measures that are generally recommended.

➞ If the breast lesion seems to be progressive, doctors may suggest the removal of the growth through a wide local excision, or lumpectomy (removal of the abnormal tissue along with the margin or the normal surrounding tissue).

➞ Women who have ADH need to be extremely careful about the changes in shape and size of the breasts. Other symptoms that should not be ignored include nipple discharge, or the presence of a lump near the breast or under the arm. An oncologist must be consulted in the event of any unusual change in the breasts or the skin around them.

➞ Women who have been diagnosed with ADH must examine their breasts frequently. It’s extremely essential to do a breast self-examination, at least once every month. Ensure that you get a clinical breast exam done twice a year. The follow-up also involves an annual screening mammogram or an MRI.

➞ If breast cancer runs in the family, and you carry BRCA gene mutations that increases the risk for breast and ovarian cancer, doctors may recommend bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (surgery for removal of both breasts. This minimizes the chances of developing breast cancer in the future.

➞ Elevated levels of estrogen are believed to increase the risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) refers to a class of drugs that prevent estrogen from binding to the estrogen receptors that are found in the breast tissue. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista) are drugs that are classified as selective estrogen receptor modulators. Women who come in high-risk group may be asked to take these drugs for a period of five years.

➞ Hormone replacement therapy could increase the risk of breast cancer in menopausal women. Thus, women who have ADH must avoid hormone therapy during menopause.

➞ Smoking, alcohol abuse, the use of chewing tobacco, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle could put women at an increased risk of developing breast cancer, which is why the necessary lifestyle modifications must be made.

It is believed that 20% of the women who have been diagnosed with ADH may develop breast cancer within 15 years. Since early detection and timely treatment of atypical ductal hyperplasia minimizes the risk of breast cancer, women must immediately seek medical assistance on noticing any unusual change in the breasts.

Symptoms of Bladder Infection in Women

A blazing sensation, visit inclination to urinate, and torment in the belly are a portion of the normal side effects of a bladder disease. The article to come will enlighten you all the more concerning the side effects of this kind of urinary tract contamination alongside courses in which you can treat it.

A type of urinary tract infection, bladder infection in women is caused by the inflammation of the bladder. This form of infection is also known as cystitis. When the bacteria move from the colon to the bladder and the infestation of the bacteria in the bladder grows abnormally, it can lead to a bladder infection. Unlike men, these infections are quite common in women. Nearly 20 percent of the women suffer from its symptoms at some point or the other in their lives. One of the main reasons for this is the short size of the urethra, which allows the bacteria to move easily to the bladder. The proximity of the urethra to the vagina and the anus can also lead to bacterial infection of the bladder.

In majority of the cases, bladder infections are not a serious condition and can be treated quite easily. However, they do reoccur quite frequently in women, who have suffered from this infection. Identifying the symptoms of this infection can allow you to take appropriate treatment measures.

Mild Symptoms

➤ Painful Urination
Discomfort, pain, burning or stinging sensation while urinating — also known as dysuria — can indicate a urinary tract infection in women. The stinging pain increases once you start urinating and then lingers on for quite some time. This can be extremely uncomfortable and irritating for anyone suffering from this problem.

➤ Need to Urinate Frequently
Women suffering from a bladder infection often feel the need to urinate frequently. Despite the urge to urinate, you may, or may not pass sufficient urine at all times. The need to urinate can persist even in the night. Some people, especially the elderly, can lose their urinary control at night.

➤ Foul-smelling Urine
Women suffering from bladder infections can notice a change in the smell and appearance of the urine. The urine may have a foul smell and may be cloudy or concentrated in appearance.

➤ Pain in the Lower Abdomen
Bladder infections are often accompanied by pain and discomfort in the abdomen and the lower back. There is a constant pelvic pressure and pain that can be extremely uncomfortable. The pain can persist during and after sexual intercourse.

The symptoms seen in women range from mild to severe. Many a time, women suffering from a mild infection of the bladder may not even experience any symptoms. Such asymptomatic cases may not really be a cause of serious concern. However, when the infection passes on from the bladder and affects the kidneys and other organs, it can result in severe symptoms.

Severe Symptoms

➤ Visible Traces of Blood in Urine
Spotting, or traces of blood in the urine can indicate a kidney infection, or tumors in the kidney, or bladder. Sometimes, the traces of blood may not be noticeable. Diagnostic tests recommended by the doctor can help in discerning the blood in urine. It is important to keep in mind that kidney infections are difficult to treat and can even be life-threatening in certain cases. Hence, it is advisable to consult a doctor immediately.

➤ Fever and Chills
When the infection affects the kidneys, it can cause mild fever and chills in the patient. This fever may be persistent even after taking medications for fever. Sometimes, nausea and vomiting can also be observed.

➤ Recurrent Bladder Infections
Despite proper treatment if you have recurrent bladder infections, then it may be necessary to consult a physician. Usually, this infection tends to recur once, or twice every year in majority of the women. This may be due to improper hygiene, lack of care, and other such factors. However, frequent infection can signal a severe condition, which needs to be addressed immediately.

Causes

The growth of Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteria is one of the common contributing factors for bladder infection. The risk increases with infections in the genitourinary system. This could be caused by:

↬ Increased sexual activity
↬ Poor hygiene
↬ Pregnancy
↬ Stress
↬ Alcohol abuse
↬ An illness which results in lowered resistance
↬ Blockages in the urinary tract
↬ Use of contraceptives that contain spermicide. Such contraceptives can destroy the friendly vaginal bacteria and lead to the growth of disease-causing bacteria in the vagina.

Treatment

Many a time, women suffering from a mild bladder infection may not even experience any symptoms — this is not considered grave. However, there is a need to watch out for the aforementioned symptoms in women. To alleviate the symptoms, antibiotics and self-care measures can be used.

➤ Use of Antibiotics

Bacteria are usually the causative agents of a bladder infection, and hence the treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics. To relieve the pain, medications, such as antispasmodics, or urinary analgesics may also be prescribed.

➤ Self-care Remedies
Increase your water intake. You must drink at least 8 glasses of water every day. It would be best to avoid caffeine, excessive sugar, and alcohol. Having cranberry juice is also known to reduce the painful symptoms of bladder infection.

  • Urinate before and after indulging in sexual intercourse. Make sure that you wash the vaginal area well, and dry it completely.
  • Bacteria flourish in a warm and moist environment. So, it is important to keep the vaginal area clean and dry. Wearing cotton undergarments will improve air circulation and help in discouraging bacterial growth. Avoid tight clothes and wet swimwear.
  • Bladder infections can also occur if you are unable to empty the bladder completely. This could be due to the presence of bladder stones. Under such circumstances, you must seek medical help for getting rid of bladder stones.

Women must ensure that they seek medical help as soon as the signs manifest themselves. While drug therapy can help in alleviating symptoms, precautionary measures can help in lowering the risk of urinary tract infections in future.

Pregnancy Brain Tips

Pregnancy is a phase of move, and a lady needs to experience a great deal of physical and passionate changes amid this period. Mental languor and loss of memory, or distraction, is one such normal issue amid pregnancy, which is named by numerous as ‘pregnancy cerebrum’, “pregnesia” or ‘placenta mind’. While specialists are wary about the presence of ‘pregnancy cerebrum’, an incredible lion’s share of ladies claim that they really encountered this condition amid those nine months.

No wonder the failure to remember even the simplest everyday tasks can be quite frustrating for a pregnant woman, when she is already battling a host of other issues (morning sickness, constipation, mood fluctuations), caused by surging hormone levels. So, what exactly is ‘pregnancy brain’? Is it a myth or an inevitable part of pregnancy? Let’s find out more about what people like to call ‘pregnancy brain’.

What is Pregnancy Brain and When does It Occur?

As mentioned already, pregnancy brain is a condition – supposedly induced by pregnancy – where a woman experiences ‘brain fog’ or trouble in concentrating and remembering things. Women usually complain about this condition during their first and third trimesters. Many women on the other hand, experience it after childbirth, which is termed as ‘mommy brain’.

However, studies conducted to examine the relation between pregnancy and memory are very limited, and most of these studies have produced conflicting results. While some studies have found that pregnancy may have an effect on memory and cognitive abilities, others maintain that the results of cognitive tests conducted in expectant mothers and women who are not pregnant are almost similar.

So, there is not enough evidence to back the claim that ‘pregnancy brain’ or ‘pregnesia’ is a real condition. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely denied that the physical, mental, and emotional changes associated with pregnancy may have an impact on the memory of a woman. So, what exactly does happen during pregnancy? Does the brain shrink during pregnancy and cause memory loss? Or is mommy brain just an illusion? Let’s find out some of the possible explanations about the pregnancy-induced ‘brain fog’ that many women experience.

What are the Possible Causes

Surging Hormones

The sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, fluctuate greatly during pregnancy, which can cause mood swings, fatigue, increased sleepiness, and headaches. Moreover, the hormonal surge in the first few weeks can alter the way in which the brain processes sensory information, especially those coming from the olfactory glands. This is the reason a woman becomes extremely sensitive to certain odors during pregnancy. So, it is presumed that if these hormones can change a woman’s perception about taste and smell, they may have an effect on her memory as well.

Increased Level of Stress and Anxiety

It is quite natural for expectant mothers to be preoccupied with thoughts of the baby and the new challenges that motherhood will bring into their lives. However, sometimes this preoccupation can leave little room for other issues, and cause distraction. In other words, a pregnant woman can sometimes become so anxious and worried about the health and safety of her unborn baby that she may end up being forgetful.

The nesting phase, where a woman feels an irresistible urge to prepare a home for the newborn, may also be associated with ‘pregnesia’. Because of her nesting instinct, a pregnant woman can become so obsessed with cleaning and preparing the house for the new member, that she may forget about other day-to-day activities.

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation is perhaps one of the most common complaints that women complain of during pregnancy and the first few months of motherhood. Both men and women need 7 to 8 hours of good sleep to feel mentally and physically alert. So, lack of enough sleep can take a toll and cause mental sluggishness, which can be interpreted by expectant and new mothers as ‘pregnancy or mommy brain’.

Changes in the Brain

In 1996, a report published in the New Scientist Magazine found that the brain of pregnant women shrunk during their third trimester. Another study published in the American Journal of Neuroradiology in 2002, also revealed that the volume of the brain reduced by about 4% during pregnancy. However, the brain usually regains its original size within a few weeks after childbirth. But in some cases, the brain can take up to six months to attain its former size.

Scientists are not sure why the size of the brain changes during pregnancy, but it is assumed that changes in cellular metabolism, required for reconstructing the brain circuits, may be responsible for it. However, a woman does not lose brain cells during pregnancy, and hence, the shrinkage is certainly not caused by the loss of brain cells. Further, experts are not sure whether the pregnancy-related brain shrinkage is in any way related to memory. But, it is suspected that the process of restructuring the connections between the brain cells may have a relation with ‘pregnancy brain’. Yet another theory suggests that ‘pregnancy or mommy brain’ can be an evolutionary development which helps a woman focus more on her baby by making her unmindful of outside distractions.

A Belief in the Existence of Pregnancy Brain

Many experts brush off the existence of pregnancy or placenta brain, and consider it mostly as a psychological phenomenon. They are of the opinion that many women tend to be more aware of the minor lapses in their memory and cognitive abilities during pregnancy, because of their firm belief in the concept of ‘pregnesia’. In fact, one study found that a group of pregnant women thought that their performance was worse than what it would have been before pregnancy, even though they actually did as good as the women who were not pregnant.

Can Pregnancy have a Positive Effect on the Brain?

✤ It has been observed that from the moment of conception, the brain of a pregnant woman undergoes many changes. New circuits are developed in the brain to prepare a woman for motherhood. Moreover, it has been observed that while some areas of the brain can shrink in size during pregnancy, other areas, especially the forebrain, can expand. The forebrain is responsible for reasoning and problem-solving, and so, its expansion may sharpen these skills.

✤ Some animal studies have observed that mothers have a better memory and they are more courageous than females without children. They are also better hunters and providers, as compared to the females who have not given birth.

✤ Professor Helen Christensen, director of the Center for Mental Health Research at the Australian National University, is of the opinion that pregnancy can have a positive effect on the functioning of the brain. So, with pregnancy, a woman can expect to have better mental abilities than before. After all, a mother needs to be more vigilant and alert to protect her child. Similarly, childbirth and breastfeeding may also have a positive impact on brain function.

But if pregnancy changes the brain for the better, then why does a woman experience ‘brain fog’ during this period? Experts are of the opinion that sleep deprivation can mask the improved mental abilities of a pregnant woman. For many women, memory loss during pregnancy can become very troublesome. However, a woman can overcome it to a great extent by writing down all her important tasks, reducing her workload, following a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising regularly.

Exceptionally Rare Cases of Stone Babies

What are Stone Babies?

Lithopedion (additionally spelled as lithopaedion) or stone child is one which is framed when a baby creates inside the stomach pit rather than the uterus and passes on amid pregnancy. Continuously, it gets calcified. On the off chance that it is too extensive in size, the amniotic sac calcifies it to shield the lady’s body from wellbeing intricacies. This to a great degree uncommon condition starts as an ectopic pregnancy, a case in which a treated egg is embedded in the fallopian tube and becomes outside the uterus.

After studying several cases of stone babies from medical literature, German physician Friedrich Küchenmeister classified them into three types, namely, Lithokelyphos, Lithotecnon, and Lithokelyphopedion. Lithokelyphos meaning stone sheath, is a condition in which calcification occurs on the placental membrane, not the fetus. Lithotecnon, called Stone Son or “true” lithopedion is a condition wherein the placental and ovarian membranes rupture, the fetus enters the abdominal cavity and gets calcified. And Lithokelyphopedion is the condition where both the fetus and the sac are calcified.

On most occasions, women carrying a lithopedion do not realize it. There have been cases where a woman gave birth to other babies while the calcified fetus was still inside her body. There have been around 300 cases of lithopedions documented by medical literature and a majority of the women with this condition, were aged over 40.
Strange Cases
❑ The earliest case was that of a French woman named Madame Colombe Chatri who became pregnant at the age of 40. However, she did not give birth and was bedridden due to exhaustion and abdominal pain. When she was autopsied after her death in 1582, there was a well-developed mummified fetus or stone baby found in her abdominal cavity. She had been carrying the stone baby for 28 years and her abdomen was puffed up and hard.
❑ Another remarkable case happened in Germany. Anna Mullern became pregnant at 48 and underwent labor pains, which lasted for seven weeks, but she never gave birth. Her belly remained swollen. Her doctor declared that it was a false alarm of pregnancy. Later, Anna gave birth to two healthy children; a son and a daughter. When she died at 94, there was an autopsy performed on her body. Her physician found a hard mass of a stone baby inside her abdomen.
❑ A woman, Randi Jonsdatter, from Denmark got pregnant in 1803. She had been pregnant for 10 years after which she gave birth to a lithopedion, a dead calcified or a decomposed stone baby through an incision above her belly. The woman was about 50 years old and survived many years after the incident without any health complications.
❑ An American woman, named Rebecca Eddy suffered from what felt like labor pains when she first became pregnant and when she had an accident with a large kettle hanging over the fire. Slowly the pains abated and she never gave birth. An autopsy was performed by Dr. William H. H. Parkhurst after her death and what was found in her belly was a perfectly formed stone baby. Eddy carried the baby for 50 years.
❑ Another astonishing case is that of Zahra Aboutalib, a woman from Morocco, who went through labor pains and was taken to a hospital where the doctors declared that she would require a cesarean section. After watching another young woman die in pain on the operating table after undergoing the same procedure, she fled the hospital for she thought that she would suffer the same fate. She did not return for 46 years. The pain ceased after a few days and she never bore children again, but adopted three. Many decades passed and she became a grandmother. The pains reoccurred when she was 75. Her son took her to the doctor, but the doctor couldn’t identify the cause of pain. Later, another doctor suspected an ovarian tumor and sent her for scans. This revealed a solid mass that could not be identified. Another specialist radiographer was referred who could identify it as a calcified structure. An MRI scan revealed that it was a stone baby Zahra had conceived 46 years before.
❑ A 70-year old woman named Antamma, from West Bengal, was suffering from abdominal pains for a while. She was then admitted to the hospital. After checkups, the doctors discovered a stone baby which she had conceived 35 years before. The operation was successful and the baby was removed. The hands, feet, and head of the baby were found to be embroiled among themselves. Despite the incomplete pregnancy, Antamma gave birth to three children.
❑ A 92-year old woman, Huang Yijun, from Southern China delivered a lithopedion or stone baby after having carried it for 65 years. She wanted the dead baby to be removed by the doctors, but they demanded a huge amount of money, which she could not afford and so ignored it.
❑ The most recent case of lithopedion is that of a woman from Colombia. She went to the doctor for pelvic discomfort. The doctors identified a 40-year-old stone baby or lithopedion after an X-ray was performed on her. The woman who was 82 years old had been carrying the calcified fetus for a long time without even realizing it. The woman is now expected to go through a surgery to remove it.
❑ An 84-year old woman from Brazil has been carrying a lithopedion inside her for over 40 years which she did not realize. This was found out only after she complained about abdominal pain and underwent an X-ray examination. The face, bones, and few other aspects of the baby were visible in the images. She said that she had been suffering from extreme pain before and had consulted a local traditional healer who gave her medication that ended the pain. She assumed that she had miscarried the baby.
❑ In August 2014, Kantabai Thakare, a 60-year old woman was operated on and skeletal remains of an unborn child were removed from her body. After she complained of severe abdominal pain, an ultrasound was performed on her, which detected a lump in the lower right side of her abdomen. According to the reports of Times of India, the remains of the unborn child had stayed in the mother’s body for 36 years. Perhaps, this is the longest time a fetus from an ectopic pregnancy remained in a woman’s body.

These were some of the weird cases of stone babies. One may wonder if cases of fetus in fetu are also related to those of stone babies. Well, fetus in fetu is a developmental abnormality wherein a fetus-like tissue is formed inside the body. The mass of tissue may start developing as a fetus but get wrapped inside its twin. Such a case was reported in Hong Kong, where a baby was born pregnant with her own sibling. Or the mass of tissue may develop into a teratoma. A fetus in fetu may resemble a normal fetus, but has no functional body systems, which means it cannot live. And when a fetus dies inside the body and calcifies, it can be termed as a stone baby.

Prediction During Pregnancy

Is it true that you are expecting an adorable little expansion to your family? At that point you would have most likely heard stories about approaches to decide the sexual orientation of your li’l one. Take a look into the old spouses’ stories that have existed since ages.

Eat Garlic to Know the Child’s Gender!
A famous myth says that if the mother eats a clove of garlic and doesn’t smell of it, she will have a baby girl!
You might have heard several old wives’ tales that make predictions about the sex of the baby, which you often begin to hear as soon as you reveal the “good news.” All the older ladies at home will have different methods of knowing whether the cute li’l bundle in your womb is a girl or a boy! These myths have existed ever since people started having babies.

The most common gender prediction you may have come across is the one related to carrying your unborn child low or high. It is said that if you are carrying low, it is boy and if you are carrying high, it is definitely a girl. Can someone be so sure about the gender of the baby by simply looking at the baby bump? This Buzzle write-up has put forth a collection of some old wives’ tales that claim to be able to ascertain the sex of your baby. Although they are myths, which are prevalent even today, you can have fun reading through them.

8 Myths About Predicting Your Baby’s Sex

Mixing Drano to Urine

✘ Myth: People believe that if you stir drano into your urine, you will notice a color change. If it turns green, you will have a boy! However, there are no real colors that are mentioned anywhere that can determine the sex of the child.
✔ Fact : The test only suggests a urine color change if you are about to have a boy but no color change is specified in case you have a girl! Moreover, there is no acidic or alkaline level change in the male and female chromosomes. So, the color change is merely due to the components present in urine. Doctors suggest that pregnant ladies should not even smell the chemical, leave alone playing around with it.
Cravings for Lots and Lots of Sweets

✘ Myth: If during your pregnancy days you develop a sweet tooth, you are going to have a baby girl, but if you crave for sour foods, it is a boy!

✔ Fact : Your baby cannot demand chocolates and ice creams if they are still in your womb, can they? There is no scientific evidence to support this claim that the cravings are in any way linked to the baby’s sex. In fact, it is yet to be declared whether the cravings are real and not imaginative!
Your Face Looks Fuller

✘ Myth: Some believe that if your face is round, rosy, and a lot fuller than before, you will have a baby girl.

✔ Fact : The shape of the face can surely not determine the sex of the baby. The rosiness may be just because your inner happiness reflects on your face. And if you have gained immense weight, your face is bound to look fuller.
Fetal Heart Rate Reaches 140

✘ Myth: This myth claims to have a scientific backing, but it doesn’t! If the fetal heart rate will be above 140, you would have a baby girl, and if it is below 140, you would have a baby boy.

✔ Fact : The truth is that the baby’s heart rate cannot, by any means, determine the sex of the child. However, during labor, the girl child’s heart rate will increase.
Baby Keeps Moving
✘ Myth: If your baby is restless and keeps moving, i.e., if the baby is active, you will give birth to a baby boy.

✔ Fact : Does that mean the baby girl is not active in the womb? Doctors say that the fetal activity is a mother’s perception. So, if she is not working and sitting relaxed, she will feel more of the kicking activity, but if she is a working woman, she will not feel them. So, it is a matter of mere perception.
Looking Tired

✘ Myth: There are various versions of this theory. Some say that if the mother is less attractive, then she will have a girl. Another version of the same says that she will have a baby boy!

✔ Fact : With so many versions of the myth, its credibility is already lost. But if we believe the first version, it is believed that the girl child takes away the beauty of her mother while the baby boy will make her look tired because of the hormonal mix.
Chinese Lunar Calendar
✘ Myth: The Lunar Calendar is believed to take into account the age of the mother and the month of conception to determine the gender of the baby.

✔ Fact : Though there is little scientific backing for this, the method is believed to be 50% accurate. But even 50% cannot be held good enough, can it?
Experience Morning Sickness

✘ Myth: If you are experiencing severe morning sickness, you will have a girl. Though this theory has existed since ages, recent studies have somewhat supported it.

✔ Fact : Women who suffer from morning sickness have hyperemesis gravidarum, because of which they are likely to give birth to girls. The reason: hCG levels that trigger morning sickness increases if the mother is carrying a baby girl.

There’s More …
❀ If the father puts on weight during pregnancy, the couple will be parents to a boy.

❀ Heard about the famous pendant method? Swing a gold pendant on the belly. If it swings back and forth, it’s a girl; if swings in circles, it is a boy!

❀ If the mother develops lots of acne, she is going to have a girl.

❀ If the pregnant lady picks a key from its thin end, she will be blessed with a baby girl.

❀ If the mother’s feet are colder during pregnancy, it is a boy.

❀ Here’s another legend similar to the golden pendant method. Hang your wedding ring from a strand of the father’s hair, and swing it over your belly. If it swings back and forth, it is a boy, and if it moves in circles, you will have a baby girl.

Yellow Discharge During Pregnancy

unduhan-17Vaginal release is normal amid pregnancy, as there is an expansion in the creation of estrogen and blood stream to the vaginal region. As pregnancy advances, the recurrence and measure of release increments, and changes in the shading and consistency might be watched.

Discharge During Early Pregnancy

During pregnancy increased blood circulation in the vaginal area and changing hormones cause a mild-smelling, milky discharge called leukorrhea. This watery discharge is made up of secretions from the vagina and cervix, old vaginal cells, and normal bacterial flora that are found in the walls of the vagina. In the very early stages, cervical secretions fill the cervical canal creating a protective barrier called mucus plug. As your cervix begins to thin out and dilate, mucus is expelled. As you approach labor, you may notice more vaginal discharge.

Thick Yellow Discharge

Discharge from the vagina should be light in color, thin in consistency, and odorless. However, if you observe thick discharge that is yellow or green and emanates a foul odor, then it may be caused due to the following reasons:

Candidiasis
Candidiasis is a type of yeast infection which may occur in some pregnant women due to hormonal changes. You can treat this yeast infection by applying anti-yeast vaginal creams prescribed by your doctor.

Chlamydia
It is a sexually transmitted infection that may cause thick, yellow or green vaginal discharge. If chlamydia is left untreated, it may lead to miscarriage or other complications during labor. Chlamydia can also be passed to the baby during labor, which may prove harmful to the child.

Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is another sexually transmitted infection that causes abnormal discharge. This parasite could lead to preterm birth or infection in the amniotic fluid (the liquid that nourishes and protects the fetus in the uterus).

Cervical Polyps
These are red, smooth, finger-shaped appendages in the passage extending from the uterus to the cervical canal. Though cervical polyps often occur without any symptoms, these could become infected causing odor and changes in the color of the vaginal discharge.

Bacterial Vaginosis
Bacterial vaginosis (or BV) is an infection caused by an imbalance of the microbial flora in the cervical canal or vagina. Like yeast infection, bacterial vaginosis can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Bacterial vaginosis produces a vaginal discharge with distinctive, fish-like odor. Women having BV may experience burning sensation while urinating. Pregnant women affected with BV are likely to give birth to babies with low birth weight. There is an increased risk of preterm birth.

Precautionary Measures

Dark yellow or brown discharge during pregnancy should be brought to the immediate notice of your health care provider or gynecologist, in order to avoid further complications. It is essential to follow these precautions to reduce this discharge, and prevent impending infections of any kind in the genital region:

  • Keep your genital area dry and clean. Wear loose-fitting, cotton undergarments.
  • Avoid douching as it may increase or worsen vaginal discharge. It may also remove the healthy bacteria, found in the lining of the vagina, that protect your body from infections.
  • Having yogurt or probiotic supplements can avoid yeast infections. If you experience any form of yeast infection, use an over-the-counter cream or consult your physician who may prescribe appropriate medication for the same.
  • Avoid stress and keep a check on your blood sugar levels, if you are a diabetic.

It is always beneficial to exercise necessary precautions and follow a proper health care regimen, when you are pregnant. If you notice yellow discharge during pregnancy that is accompanied by itching or irritation, you should consult your gynecologist without further delay.

Dark Brown Discharge Tips

Watching dull chestnut release can bring about tension in ladies. Consequently, it is critical to know the reasons that can precipitate this issue. This article will give you some data on the elements which can bring about such release among ladies.

Women who have a regular menstrual cycle, know very well as to when to expect their periods. Due to this, any change in the regular pattern can cause anxiety and worry. If a woman observes brownish discharge during the time she is not expecting her periods, it can cause some tension. However, experts are of the opinion that experiencing such discharge from the vagina is not a serious condition and can be treated with some dietary as well as lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, there have been cases where it was an indication of some serious problems. Hence, it is important to know about the causes of dark brown discharge before period as well as after it.

Causes
As mentioned earlier, the occurrence of such discharge is usually not very serious. However, knowing about the different factors that can give rise to this can help in seeking immediate medical attention. With this note, let us take a look at its causes.

Endometrial Bleeding
Endometrium is a mucous membrane which lines the uterus and thickens so that a fertilized egg can attach itself to this lining. However, if pregnancy does not occur, this lining disintegrates and is thrown out of the body in the form of menstrual blood. These endometrial tissues have different layers and are completely shed during menstruation. However, sometimes due to some reason, certain parts of the uterine lining may not be able to shed completely. Due to this, the person may experience dark brown discharge after period or may be before the beginning of the next periods. As the blood is a little old, it becomes dark brown in color.

Ovulation
If you experience discharge between periods, it is most likely because of ovulation. In a 28-day menstrual cycle, ovulation can occur anywhere between the 14th or 16th day, counting from the first day of the periods. As the mature egg releases from the ovary, some women experience a little bleeding which is usually called spotting. Along with bleeding, one may also experience abdominal cramps during ovulation.

Pregnancy
Such discharge is very common in early pregnancy and can be an indication that one has conceived. This usually occurs a few days after conception i.e., when the fertilized ovum attaches itself to the uterine wall and is called implantation bleeding. This type of discharge during pregnancy lasts for 3-4 days and is usually very light. However, if you experience dark brownish vaginal discharge any time during your pregnancy, it is very important that you consult your doctor as soon as possible.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Another reason that can give rise to the occurrence of brown discharge in women is sexually transmitted diseases. Some of the STDs that can cause this problem include gonorrhea, genital warts, chlamydia, etc. However, in this case, along with vaginal discharge, one may also experience other symptoms which include pain, burning sensation, infertility, loss of appetite, vomiting, etc.

Menopause
Experiencing brown discharge instead of period is very common in women who are nearing menopause. During this time, the periods are very irregular and one may observe occasional vaginal discharge and spotting which is either pink or brown in color. Along with this, some other problems that women experience during this time include, body ache, depression, foul urine odor, etc.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
One of the most serious problems which can cause the dark brown vaginal discharge is pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease occurs due to the infection on the ovaries, uterus lining, fallopian tubes, cervix, and the vagina. This is commonly seen in women who have sexual contact with more than one partner. Apart from vaginal discharge, some other problems that can be caused by this disease include painful menstruation, pain during sexual intercourse, infertility, abdominal pain, etc.

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is surely the most serious as well as the most dangerous cause of brown discharge. This type of cancer is usually caused by the virus HPV which is spread through sexual intercourse. Some of the risk factors that can cause cervical cancer include having sex at a young age, having multiple sex partners, a weakened immune system, etc. Other than vaginal discharge, some other symptoms of cervical cancer include weight loss, pelvic pain, loss of appetite, leg pain, fatigue, etc.

Although the reasons for the occurrence of brown vaginal discharge are rarely serious, if you experience any other symptoms along with it, it will be a good idea to consult your health care practitioner who will try to find the root cause with the help of certain diagnostic tests. It is best to start the treatment on time to avoid aggravation of this problem.

Causes of Discharge Before Periods

Ordinarily, a vaginal release experienced as periods approach is not a matter to set you stressing; in any case, it might flag the onset of a hidden condition, on the off chance that you see an adjustment in the shade of the release. This article furnishes you with the insights concerning when you should consider a gynecologist’s supposition.

A small amount of vaginal discharge or secretion is quite normal. A number of women experience slight vaginal discharge before, during, and after their 28-day menstrual cycle. This discharge is nothing but the fluid produced by the cervix and the glands present inside the vagina. Know that the fluid serves a very important purpose. Whenever the fluid is discharged from the vagina, it brings with itself the old cells, lining the vaginal wall. In this way, the fluid helps to keep the insides of the vagina clean and healthy.

The normal vaginal discharge is usually transparent or milk-white in color. As for the texture, the discharge may be stretchy, or slightly thick. Normal vaginal discharge is odorless and is not accompanied by itching, or burning sensation. However, the color and consistency of normal discharge may undergo changes during the menstrual cycle. In fact, some women experience an increase in discharge before their periods.

Causes
☛ As has been mentioned, the color of a normal vaginal discharge can be white, or it could be transparent. For some women, discharge during ovulation — when one of the ovaries releases an egg — can be a tad thicker. However, generally, women may observe an increase in clear and stretchy discharge, with occasional specks of white during this period. During ovulation, the level of estrogen increases in the body, which, in turn stimulates the glands of the cervix to secrete clear and water-like fluid.

☛ Thick and white discharge at the end of the cycle as well as in the beginning of the cycle may also be considered quite normal. Nevertheless, if white discharge is accompanied with itching, it may be an indicator of yeast infection. On the other hand, brown discharge can be a sign of several conditions. Often, a brown-colored discharge is due to the presence of old blood cells. Brown discharge before your menses, usually indicates that your monthly cycle is about to begin. However, brown discharge could mean several other things as well; for instance, a brownish discharge may be due to polyps. A polyp is a group of cells on the internal lining of the cervix, or vagina. Bleeding of these polyps can cause the discharge to become brown in color. Though they are like tumors, 90% of the polyps are benign or noncancerous.

☛ At times, brownish discharge may be caused by implantation bleeding, i.e., the bleeding that occurs when the fetus gets implanted in the endometrium lining. If you get a brown discharge, or spotting at the time when your periods normally begins, it could be a sign of early pregnancy. One should also keep in mind that implantation bleeding can also cause brown discharge a week before periods. Women using contraceptive pills may also get brown discharge before menstruation. A lot of women can also observe a small amount of brown discharge when their periods culminates; this is normal. However, if you notice green, or yellow discharge, it may signal an infection, especially, if the discharge is thick, or clumpy and has a foul odor.

☛ Besides, if you notice a white-colored discharge that looks curdled, you must consult a certified gynecologist. The discharge is secreted to mark the onset of your menstrual cycle and has foul odor. You may also notice a frothy or curdled discharge after intercourse. These signs indicate urogenital candidiasis, which may instigate the region and cause vaginal itching and discomfort. A gauzy pus-like discharge may indicate the probability of the woman being infected with trichomonas colpitis or trichomoniasis. This form of discharge is fluid in consistency with it emitting a foul odor. Besides these, women may endure sensitivity and irritation in the vaginal region. Some have reported discomfort in the lower abdominal area, too, accompanied with a burning sensation while urinating.

Diagnosis
By now, you must have been able to understand the difference between normal and abnormal vaginal discharge. If you have a normal discharge before your menstrual cycle, there is no reason to worry. However, if you observe any change in the amount of discharge, its color and odor, plan to visit your gynecologist without much delay. Your gynecologist would perform a number of tests and examinations before prescribing a particular treatment plan. On consultation, your gynecologist may take a sample of your discharge to further the diagnostic procedure. Besides, a Papanicolaou test, also called the Pap test or the Pap smear, is a diagnostic method to detect changes in the cells of the cervix. A Pap test may reveal the signs of an infection, or the growth of unhealthy cells. It is also a potent method to detect the early signs of cervical cancer.

Treatment
An abnormal increase in the amount of discharge accompanied with itching, irritation, and burning sensation are signs depicting that the vaginal discharge is not normal. Along with itching and irritation, the discharge is coupled with foul odor. On the other hand, green, or yellow discharge before, or any time during your menstrual cycle can indicate an infection. Such changes in the discharge may be associated with some problems of the reproductive organs. Treatment for such abnormal discharge depends on certain underlying causes and its subsequent diagnosis. If yeast infection it is, antifungal medication and lubricants are used to gain control over the problem. Besides, an antibiotic course accompanied with vaginal suppositories may help to treat the condition.

Preventive Measures
Undermentioned are measures that you ought to take up to avert vaginal infection.
» Keep the vaginal area clean. Use a mild soap with warm water for the purpose.
» Keep from using a scented body wash. Overindulging in bubble baths, too, may put you at the risk counter.
» After using the facilities, ensure that you wipe the region clean with non-perfumed tissues in order to prevent a bacterial infection.
» As far as possible, wear cotton panties.

The only accurate way to comprehend the cause of an abnormal discharge is to get the condition thoroughly evaluated by your gynecologist.